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The procedure of amending the Constitution in a federal system is normally rigid.Indian Constitution provides that some amendments require a special majority.The federation is a union because it is indestructible and helps to maintain the unity of the country.Art 155 and 156 provide that the Governor, who is the constitutional head of a State, is to be appointed by the President and stays only until the pleasure of the President The Centre may take over the administration of the State on the recommendations of the Governor or otherwise.As such amendments can only be made by the Union Parliament.All India Services such as IAS and IPS have been created which are kept under the control of the Union.In a true federation such as that of United State of America every State irrespective of their size in terms of area or population it sends two representatives in the upper House i.e. In addition to all this, all important appointments such as the Chief Election Commissioner, the Comptroller and Auditor General are made by the Union Government. There is no provision for separate Constitutions for the states.The States cannot propose amendments to, the Constitution.

Since in India important amendments can be amended through this procedure Hence, Indian Constitution has been rightly called a rigid constitution. The Union List consists of 97 subjects of national importance such as Defence, Railways, Post and Telegraph, etc.A unitary system is governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature. A unitary state is a sovereign state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and any administrative divisions (sub national units) exercise only powers that the central government chooses to delegate.This is one of the federal features of the Indian constitution.In a federal set up there is a two tier of Government with well assigned powers and functions.In this system the central government and the governments of the units act within a well defined sphere, co-ordinate and at the same time act independently. Wheare defines federal government as an association of states, which has been formed for certain common purposes, but in which the member states retain a large measure of their original independence.

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